- The French name for the spiny lobster, differentiating from Maine lobsters in that they have no claws. Langoustes are warm water crustaceans that can be found in the south Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and off the coasts of South America, Australia and the West Indies.
- The French name for Dublin prawn. These are small pink crustaceans resembling crayfish, with a taste and texture closest to lobster. Their claws are quite long but have no edible meat in them. Like the langouste, these are found in warm waters.
- A technique by which thin strips of back fat, or vegetables, are inserted into a piece of meat. These strips help the meat to remain juicy during cooking. Larding with vegetables gives the meat a contrast of color plus the addition of flavor. This practice is not used as often now because of the higher quality of meat available to us.
- Sheets of pasta which are layered with sauce and cheese and baked au gratin. Meat, fish, shellfish, and vegetables are all used as fillings for this dish. Recipes from northern Italy are simple preparations consisting of little more than sauce and cheese. Contrary to this is lasagna al forno, filled with a rich bolognese sauce. Southern Italian versions are more elaborate calling for the addition of sausages, mushrooms, and anything else they may have on hand.
- A frothy yogurt drink, sweet or salty, flavored with pistachios, cardamom, cumin, or rose water.
- A thin, flat potato pancake, about the consistency of a tortilla and cooked by similar method. Very mild, starchy, slightly sweet taste. Lefse is enhanced by the addition of peanut butter, brown sugar, or lutefisk.
- The process of thickening a sauce, soup, or stew. This includes all rouxs, starch and water mixtures(slurries), beurre mani‚, and egg yolks with or without cream. Egg yolks must be tempered with hot liquid before adding to the liquid in order to prevent curdling.
- A breed of cattle which is naturally lower in fat and cholestrol. These cattle were brought to the United States from France around 1930.
- Long, oval shaped pasta noodles. Hand cut versions of this are very narrow flat noodles.
- An Austrian pastry comprised of a short crust dough flavored with ground almonds and hazelnuts, cinnamon, and lemon zest. This is then spread with raspberry jam and topped with a cross-hatch of dough. Almond paste is sometimes layered underneath the raspberry jam. Other versions of this use fresh cranberries or apricots in the filling.
- A wild mushroom that has a firm texture and a red and orange color like lobster shells.
- A Norweigan fish dish of dried cod, cured in lye, then reconstitued by boiling. Traditionally served with clarified butter or in white sauce and served with lefse. In its finest form, lutefisk has a delicately mild buttery flavor and flaky consistency. In its not-so-fine form, it is reminiscent of fish-flavored gelatin.
- A small fruit from China and the West indies, with a hard shell and sweet, juicy flesh. The flesh is white with a gelatinous texture and a musky, perfumed flavor.
- A classic French sauce preparation made with sauteed onions, white wine and demi-glace. The sauce is strained before being served with meats and sometime poultry.
Lyonnaise, à la
- A French term for “in the manner of Lyons” Dishes include onions which have been cooked golden brown and seasoned with wine, garlic, and parsley.